A couple of weeks ago, Edward the Bonobo mentioned the concept of a generative grammar, something I’d never come across before. Then, through WTF, I came across SCIgen, which uses the related concept of a context-free grammar. Today, while trying to get my head around some concepts of musical theory, I followed a series of links around Wikipedia from Mixolydian mode via Musical mode, Key (music) and Chord progression to Generative grammar again. Clearly the Fates are conspiring to guide me towards this concept. Perhaps generative grammars are the basis of the project that’s going to advance my understanding of Perl?
Archive for the ‘Internet’ Category
Posted by Polonius on 25 March, 2007
Posted by Polonius on 5 October, 2006
Yesterday’s edition of The Daily WTF told a tale of some HVAC maintainers who managed to close down a bank’s wire transfer capability by taking down both air conditioners for preventive (sic) maintenance. It seems slightly implausible, because hardware is usually significantly more tolerant of high temperatures than wetware, but never underestimate the stupidity of HVAC maintainers. I remember, many years ago, two people staggering out of a computer room with splitting headaches after a trained monkey had left a hose flapping about while doing some maintenance. Apparently the people in the room hadn’t acquired the knack of living on an atmosphere consisting largely of freon.
But I digress. One of the bank’s major errors was of course having a Single Point Of Failure (SPOF). For all their redundant systems, the servers were still all in one room. It is bizarre that many of the UK’s ISPs have their main server farms in one building, at Telehouse Docklands. I hope the ISPs have mirrored facilities on other sites. I’m sure Telehouse has no end of redundant electrical supplies, UPSes, generators, inert gas extinguishers, etc., etc., but it’s still one building.
You can design systems to withstand all predictable failure modes, but if you have a SPOF, you can be confident that an event, or combination of events, that you didn’t predict will catch you unawares, and nobody knows that better than Telehouse themselves. In September 2001, it is claimed that 70% of all Internet traffic between the US and Europe passed through Telehouse’s premises at 25 Broadway. When the World Trade Center collapsed, it took out Telehouse’s mains electrical supply. Telehouse’s backup systems operated as designed. The UPSes picked up the load without missing a beat and kept everything ticking over until the generators could be brought on-line. They had enough diesel to keep the generators running for three days. Nobody had predicted a scenario where the electricity supply would be cut off and fuel delivery trucks would be banned from Manhattan Island for over three days. But it happened.
Strings were pulled; a tanker got through. But then another unpredicted event occurred. Just as people can’t breathe freon for more than a few minutes, diesel generators can’t breathe smoke and dust for more than a few days. Telehouse Manhattan was off-line for over 30 hours.